Monthly Archives: October 2017

How to start a project with PRINCE2 methodology


This blog can give you an idea or jump start on a PRINCE2 “Project start up” stage for a new PM on this environment.

Following are the typical activities on Start-up of a new project using PRINCE2 methodology.

PRINCE2 Project Start Slide2B

  1. Nominate  the PRINCE2 Project executive and the PM: These roles can help the organization to outline the project by following the PRINCE2 methodology. Sometimes, both the roles can be equal like; he/she can be Project executive and the PM also, depends on the size of the project and the decision of the organization. In many organizations they have PMO role based person or PMO unit where they support to the Programmes or projects.
  2. Capture previous lessons: The previous lessons of the similar projects can give like; how the issues were handled, risks mitigation and their planning each stage. Most of the organizations they might have a repository of the project artifacts either through a configuration management library or in the form of project archival. These are very useful for running the retrospectives from the past projects. If the similar projects have not been executed by the organization, it is mandated to have external consultants to guide the team atleast for one cycle of the delivery. Please remember PRINCE2 framework emphasises to avoid the risks of failure to have these methods followed. Nobody can do a new technology or non-technology project without having a support. 
  3. Design and allocate the project management team: Once the Project Executive and the PM have been appointed on the project, they need to work together to identify the project business case. Then they need to work out on the roles required for the project. The roles & responsibilities need to be defined upfront with the required skills. Then the resources fulfilment can happen very easily.
  4. Outlining Business case: At this stage, The PM and the executive can consider the initial business case and the requirement made towards setting up of this project. The business case can be extended now and can be made very detailed and to be understood by the entire project organization. It should be very transparent to the team members also, to make them responsible on their role.
  5. Define Project approach and team orientation: During this stage, the PM and the executive need to define the project approach. During this documentation definition, they can use the past lessons learnt from the similar previous projects. If there are no past experiences gained, need to have external consultants support while doing the approach documentation. Please note that it should contain the supporting process steps also towards successful execution of the project. The timely risk mitigation and resolutions finding approach, on how to check the continuous business case justification at each stage of the project towards meeting the ROI of each activity can definitely help the entire team. The incorporation of resource contingency planning and release approach can help/support the team and management also. The continuous cost control approach also can give clarity to the management on identifying the extra costs at different stages and the more ROI from different stages.   Finally, there should be management approval on this approach documentation. Once it is approved, the resources   orientation training can be planned. During the orientation, the resources should be able to understand the business case and the project approach. The more these are transparent to them, the PM life and the team members life will be made smooth on the project. They need to be educated more on risk mitigation, resolution and activity/task re-planning. They should be able to identify risks even on their sub-tasks and the other team members’ sub-tasks. This way project execution planning and its control can be made easier. If needed the PM can conduct a quiz on the oriented topics and also the predicted risk scenarios on few activities. This way they can be self-motivated to be competent on the project. At the same time the team bonding also can be established.
  6. Project Initiation: Please note, at the end of each stage of the PRINCE2, you need to have a planning activity for the next stage. Hence during this activity you need to plan for the next stage which is project initiation.

Please follow my blogs [will be posted] for other stages of the PRINCE2 methodology.

This article has been made into Youtube videos. 

For all the Videos please  use the following links:

How to Start PRINCE2 Project Part1 of 5

How to Start PRINCE2 Project Part2 of 5:

How to Start PRINCE2 Project Part3 of 5

How to Start PRINCE2 Project Part4 of 5

How to Start PRINCE2 Project Part5 of 5

For any queries, please contact me.


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SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers -7

In continuation of my previous blog [#6] on this subject following questions and answers are continued:

1. During test driven development [TDD] what are the main tasks need to be considered ?

Ans: During TDD, the following tasks need to be considered:

  • A test first approach need to be facilitated while iteration requirements are being drafted or during model storming activity.
  • The test approach points need to be converted into software specifications to design and develop the software code.
  • Finally a concrete test case finalization can happen during TDD process.
  • Make a Plan to write the code in a testable approach.

2. What is review activity in a project and where all you can have this activity ?

Ans: The Review need to be done against on any output of the activity. Before starting an activity we need to have the base item to work on that activity to complete. Once it is completed the review need to be performed to identify the potential issues. This need to happen across the Agile project activities. The review can be formal or informal depends on the need or situation.

3. What is a code refactoring ?

Ans: In any software code or program, the future requirements need to be ammended. The written instructions need to be flexible to adopt the new steps to accommodate easily in the existing code. If this facility is not available in the code, the new or old developer need to restructure the code to accommodate these amendments. In every code the reusable component or functions insertion is the best practice to utilize for future requirements.

This method is called code refactoring. Many legacy systems, those were coded on ad-hoc basis need to be under code refactoring activity. The Agile process steps can be implemented if the code refactored or if the software has reusable modules. This way the developers or any technical teams can delivery the SPRINT items faster.

To have some understanding on building reusable code please see my videos which has an e-commerce scenario example:

4. What is Scrum and how it helps in Agile development cycle?

Ans: Scrum is an incremental and iterative software development process/framework in Agile software development. It makes the development team as integrated team to work on a common goal. The teams are also collaborated and mixed together with this process to work on common goals. This way it helps Agile SDLC to deliver the workable software.

5. How the teams are expected to work in a Scrum process ?

Ans: The teams are expected to work in a self organized way. They are also expected to co-locate to one place or through online collaboration within the teams to work closely and to have daily face to face communication with a disciplined approach to reach the goal.

6. How to handle the Requirements volatility in Scrum Process ?

Ans: In a Scrum process the key principle is to accept the requirements changes during the product development. Hence at any given time before deploying the product into production the users can demand for any change and the technical team need to accept it. Hence there is a facility to handle the Requirements volatility in Scrum Process.

7. During the scrum process how the problem definition and its acceptance can be adopted ?

Ans: In Scrum, with multiple iterations the product development is driven. The details of product final goal or vision is not known in one iteration. Once all the iterations are defined only, these symptoms can be known. In the beginning of the project or during requirements envision phase the iterations need to be defined in high level with requirements segregation. Then the iterations clarity need to be available to accept for construction during the SPRINTs making. Then the acceptance criteria is known to the teams to adopt into delivery process for different SPRINTs.

8. How the Scrum Model works ?

Ans: The Scrum model works in the following approach:

  • By focusing on maximizing the team’s ability to deliver quickly.
  • The response for emerging requirements should be faster.
  • More adoption to evolving technologies.
  • Adopting changes towards the market conditions.

9. Whom all the Product owner represents during Scrum process ?

Ans: Product owner represents the Product stakeholders and the voice of the customer.

10. What for the Product owner is accountable in a Scrum process ?

Ans: The Product owner [PO] is accountable to ensure the teams deliver the value to the business.

Please feel free to contact for any support.

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Why the DevOps Practice is mandatory for an IT Employee

DevOps Patterns
  1. DevOps is a terminology used to refer to a set of principles and practices to emphasize the collaboration and communication of Information Technology [IT] professionals in a software project organization, while automating the process of software delivery and infrastructure using Continuous Delivery Integration[CDI] methods.
  2. The DevOps is also connecting the teams of Development and Operations together to work collaboratively to deliver the Software to the customers in an iterative development model by adopting Continuous Delivery Integration [CDI] concepts. The software delivery happens  in small pieces at different delivery intervals. Sometimes these intervals can be accelerated depends on the customer demand.
  3. The DevOps is a new practice globally adopted by many companies and its importance and implementation is accelerating by maintaining constant speed.  So every IT professional need to learn the concepts of DevOps and its Continuous Delivery Integration [CDI] methods. To know the typical DevOps activities by role just watch the video:, it is pasted below in videos.
  4. Even a college graduate or freshers also need to have this knowledge or practices to work closely with their new project teams in a company. If a fresher attends this course he/she can get into the project shoes faster to cope up with the  experienced teams.
  5. Another way; The DevOps is an extension practice of Agile and continuous delivery. To merge into this career; the IT professionals  need to learn the Agile concepts, Software configuration management, Release management, deployment management and  different DevOps principles and practices to implement the CDI patterns. The relevant tools for these practices integration. There are various tool vendors in the market. Also open source tools are very famous. Using these tools the DevOps practices can be integrated to maintain the speed for CDI.
  6. There  are tools related with version control and CDI automation. One need to learn the process steps related to these areas by attending a course. Then the tools can be understood easily.  If one understands these CDI automation practices and later on learning the tools process is very easy by self also depends on their work environment.
  7. As mentioned in the above; Every IT company or IT services company need to adopt the DevOps practices for their customers competent service delivery in global IT industry. When these companies adopt these practices, their resources also need to be with thorough knowledge of DevOps practices to serve to the customers. The companies can get more benefit by having these knowledged resources. At the same time the new joinees in any company either experienced or fresher professional if they have this knowledge, their CTC in view of perks will be offered more or with competent offer they may be invited to join in that company.
  8. Let us know if you need  DevOps training  from  the IT industry experienced people; which includes the above practice areas to boost you in the IT industry.

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Management Practice-1: Some helpful tips for new Scrum masters under Servant leadership role

Agile-Scrum image-add1

In continuation of my previous blogs on SDLC/Agile/Scrum, this blog can give some tips to Scrum Masters.

As per the Agile manifesto and Scrum principles, the Scrum Master need to work as a servant leader. The typical servant leader how he/she should have characteristics to bring the team alignment for right delivery with CDI speed, I have drafted in  the below content. This can be useful as TIPS to new Scrum master on Agile projects.

What characteristics a Servant Leader should have in the organization ?

Creating the right leadership roles is very important and challenging to any organization with the current trend of the rapid technology or business transformation.  

They need to look into the person’s characteristics very deeply.  At the end of the day these leaders only drive the key aspects of the organization to achieve the results.

There are different leadership roles taken by coaches. One of them and very famous and with value added is;  Servant leadership.

The servant leadership denotes as ‘a philosophy and practice’ of leadership. This concept has been appearing from the prehistoric.  I would like to give a brief introduction of this role in this article, which can help the professionals who would be pursuing into the leadership roles.

When we move forward on analyzing this role, our mindset might have the following questions:

1. What is servant leadership means?

2. How they can thrive the teams in organizations?

3. How they can improve the corporate culture?

4. What is the significance they can create?

5. How this leader can drive high loyalty of the customers?

6. How this leader can build empowered teams to the organization?

7. How the teams can feel being with this leader?

8. Does the organization get the opportunity to drive long term goals with this role?

9. How the organization work culture can be changed timely with this role?

10. How this leadership role can help the organization with accelerated ROI?


In any organization servant leaders accomplish the results while reaching to the targets. These leaders give preferences to the needs of their contemporaries. By thumb rule, these leaders are being seen as humble stewards in their organizational resources like; human, financial and physical.

Focus on teams: A servant leader focuses on his/her team members needs towards scaling them into higher levels in their organization by helping them to resolve their issues and promotes their personality development also. These leaders feel it’s a management philosophy which can be applied to in the view of quality of people, work and community spirit.

We can see in many organizations there are several leaders’ supports their employees in the above mentioned areas to ascend them further. Every growing organization needs this kind of leaders to achieve their targets. Without these leaders and their characteristics it would have not been possible many companies rapid growth in the relevant industries.

Servant leader’s characteristics: When we think of their characteristics, certainly the following can come into our mind with leadership analysis thought process.

  •  Listening
  •  Empathy
  •  Healing
  •  Awareness
  •  Persuasion
  •  Conceptualization
  •  Foresight
  •  Stewardship
  •  Commitment to the growth of people
  •  Building community

Understanding people closely: A servant leader attempts to understand and empathize with the team. This leader would not consider them as employees. Their individual respect and appreciation on their personal development would be awarded by the leader. As a manager or leader you can consider any team members tasks, look into its complexity, and support the team member to achieve its result. And you can apply your servant leadership compassion.  The team members would not have realized you earlier, when you applied these leadership techniques to achieve their targets.

Effective management of people and their skills: The servant leaders don’t use their power in getting the things done by the people. Instead they manage the tasks and people through effective discussions. This way the team member also can understand on how their manager is giving the importance and respect to their individual concerns. Their hidden or unused skills or power can be utilized to complete any complex tasks with easy ways. For the future tasks, the minimal discussion time can be taken place to convince the team members, while having built the relationship empathetically.

Focus on operating targets and objectives: The servant leadership also plays to focus on long term operating goals also, rather than short term benefits.  In view of this kind of thought process they derive specific goals towards implementing strategies for the benefits of the organization as well as tuning the teams towards working on the strategic plans and their execution.

Serving with Openness and persuasion: These leaders would have dedication to help and serve others. With their openness and persuasion their leadership qualities can be demonstrates in the organization to achieve any complex activities also with simple.

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 How the servant leadership can build the teams for competencies ?

You can see this video :

To know some of the basics of Agile/Scum practices, visit the below video:

1. Agile: What are Agile manifesto Principles & How they can be used ?

And learn many like this, you can join in my DevOps Practices Group:

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How the Project SDLC Model conversion can be done – from Traditional [V-Model] to Agile ?


Many teams are being or going to be converted into Agile SDLC from V-model through different IT organizations as per the current IT trends.

When they are on Agile projects, if they do not get any detailed trainings by their organization before this model conversion starts. Their productivity will be slowed down due to lack of understanding on Agile process. They also get confusion on the terminology and Scrum teams process.

Hence one need to understand this conversion process before moving to Agile from V-Model.

I have drafted a comparision between these models and the project phases. This might help if any of you did not get Agile or model conversion training and if you are into Agile project already.  Please remember; you also need to compare with your organization’s SDLC guidelines/needs and follow them also.

At the same time please read all of my blog series for: SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers,  to know the steps involved in Agile project.

V Model

Question # 1. : During the conversion from V-model  to Agile model; how the User requirements are considered and into which phase of Agile it need to be considered ?

Ans: In Agile model the following phases are considered:

  1. Concept, B) Inception, C) Construction, D) Transition, E) Production, F) Retirement.

In V-model the phases are: A) User requirements [the UAT uses these for product certification], B) Software Requirement Specification-SRS [Being used for System testing], C) High Level Design-HLD [Used for Integration testing], D) Detailed Design Specification-DDS [Used for Integration testing], E) Coding [The code requirements also can be used for coding and during Unit testing these will be used].

  • From the V-Model; the User requirements are considered into the Inception phase.
  • And the Product owner [PO] develops the user stories against to these user requirements with the help of users.
  • The PO divide them into different iterations for SPRINT process as per the Agile model.
  • This will be done under the activities of “Initial Requirements Envisioning” and “Initial Architecture Envisioning”.Question # 2. : How the SRS can be converted from V-Model to Agile model ?


  • As per the Agile model the Inception phase should have the activities of “Initial Requirements Envisioning” and “Initial Architecture Envisioning”.
  • The PO should consider the user requirements and map these Software Requirements Specifications [SRS] to them in view of user stories and make a product Backlog [PB].
  • Once this is done the project [Scrum] teams should consider the PB to convert them into the SPRINT to deliver the software into different iterations.
  • On priority the SPRINTs are considered for delivery as per the Scrum process. Question # 3.: How the HLD and DDS are converted into Agile from V-model ?


  • As per the Agile model the Construction phase need to have the Current SPRINT.
  • The relevant design specifications need to be pulled into the relevant iterations to work on different SPRINT Cycles.Question # 4.: How the coding activity can be handled in Agile from V-model ?


  • Once the HLD and DDS are converted into different SPRINT cycles, the relevant components can be identified to allocate to the developers for coding activity under Construction phase of Agile.
  • The developers consider their delivery of work into different iterations by following Scrum process.
  • The relevant documentation is mandatory as per the Agile process.


Question # 5.: How the Integration Testing [IT] can be executed in Agile mode when you transform from V-Model ?


  • Once the SPRINT planning is done the coding and unit testing need to be completed by Scrum process.
  • Then the next activity can be IT.
  • This should be executed during Construction phase of Agile.
  • At this stage an initial System Testing is also possible as per the project need, before moving to Transition phase of Agile.

I hope this might give some level of understanding or confidence to move forward with your current Agile process/project.

Please feel free to contact for any of your project delivery support.

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SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers -6

In continuation of my previous blog  on this subject following questions and answers are continued:

 1. What is rapid prototype model?

Ans:  During rapid prototype model the team will have complete product and technical knowledge to create the demo or skeleton software. Once the users approved, it can be converted into a full pledged product with different features. And it can be considered for Agile delivery under different iterations.  

Example: If the team has knowledge of E-commerce system design, development and implementation they can consider as a product to develop with a prototype for a customer demo. Once it is approved it can be converted into full  product development project using Agile SDLC model.


2. What is initial funding?

Ans: In Any Agile project the initial vision is mandatory.

During this activity the ROI is calculated for different phases of project. During Project initiation  the required fund for project initiation phase is released. This will be the initial funding. Once the project initiation is done, the balance of the project funding is released incrementally  from the project budget.


3.  What are the work items in Agile project and how can you get them from a story ?

Ans: In Agile projects; the work items are derived from requirements [user story] for developers to construct the code. The requirements from each iteration are transformed into work items by following a decomposition method. [Refer to model storming question in my previous blog]. Example: One user requirement [user story] can be  decomposed into one or more design requirements. One design requirement might need to have a source code to construct. Similarly these process steps are followed for all the iterations.


4. When can you consider highest prioritized work items ?

Ans: As per the Agile project during the project initiation phase, the requirements are prioritized under requirements envisioning activity.  From this activity the highest prioritized requirements are collected and grouped into 1st iteration for delivery. Then the technical team can take forward them to decompose to SPRINT. SPRINT items also will have priority in relation to iteration requirement.  [to understand clearly, watch Agile videos posted on this blog site].


5. What is planning session in Agile project ?

Ans: Once an initial demo is done to the business users, they might bring up with some changes or new requirements. These need to be discussed among the developers under a planning session to segregate them into different future iterations.  Ultimately the SPRINT items can be derived.


6. What is project viability during construction phase ?

Ans: During construction phase the user demo is conducted. At that time the requirements are segregated into different iterations with a consumable solution. If the iteration can fit for the required functional requirements then the technical team can decide as it is viable to proceed. Otherwise, they can consider it is not viable to deliver the heavy sized [in effort] of the project with more requirements and within the given duration along with the  limited resources.


7. What is Replenishment of modeling session during business value identification of agile project ?

Ans: During business value identification of Agile project, the new features or requirements are validated by the stakeholders. During this stage each requirement is validated towards incorporating it as software feature. Both the technical and business teams will assess the technical and business value of each requirement for ROI and finalize the requirements for a project or iteration. This process is done during the inception phase by adopting the activity of Requirements envisioning.


8. During Initial  stage, for  Architectural requirements envisioning  activity what are the major tasks need to be performed ?

Ans:  We need to identify the high level scope of the requirements, identification of initial requirements stack and identification of architectural vision. This can be considered as initial architecture of the product or project planned to execute using Agile SDLC. Note this will be in very high level product architecture. Sometimes; you may not find the details of the architecture components also. When we move forward on the project the more clarity can be achieved.


9. What are the tasks will be performed during iteration modeling ?

Ans: During the iteration modeling;  planning for good estimates identification and planning the work items for the iteration can happen. With these tasks the team can identify the work items for an iteration to start. We can call this activity [iteration modeling] as iteration planning session also within the teams.  


10. What are the critical activities need to be performed during model storming ?

Ans: During the model storming following critical activities are performed:

A) Working through specific issues on a JIT [Just In Time] manner.

B) Active participation of stakeholders

C) Making sure the requirements are evolving throughout the project.

D) Consider to model the current needed requirements only and make provision to come back later.  


Keep watching this site for further updates.
Contact for any guidance/coaching.

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Management practice-2: Onsite & Offshore co-ordination with Virtual [vendor] team management.

Many customers might have outsourced the IT Projects to different countries through different IT vendors. This blogs can give some thoughts on their current practices changes [if needed] towards “Onsite & Offshore co-ordination with Virtual team management. ”

  1. When the IT activities are outsourced to other countries, the customers might need to evaluate their internal review process for offshore team management and delivery.
  2. Let us assume the customer handles more than 500 outsourced resources globally in different countries.
  3. All these teams need to have their local delivery managers. And atleast one onsite manager for onsite/offshore co-ordination.
  4. When the work packets are segregated to each vendor by country, the customer needs to identify the deliverable activities month by month.
  5. During these activities segregation, the required inputs for offshore teams need to be identified and make sure to deliver as their entry criteria to start the work.
  6. During the activities planning, execution and review phases, the relevant onsite manager need to be involved and the customer approval need to be acquired to make sure customer manager is aware of the activities and the delivery output is honored for billing purpose. [Which is very important for an IT services vendor].
  7. The customer managers also need to make sure the teams are attending the required calls periodically and they are getting into the shoes of the required activities.
  8. The time difference of different countries needs to be followed and fix the feasible timings for onsite and offshore team calls.
  9. Each teams weekly reports by resource need to be supplied to the customer managers through the e-mails or to save the cycle time online tools can be used.
  10. The online tools should have features to port the project plans and the activities tracking mechanism.
  11. The projects issues register features also need to be available online for the virtual teams.
  12. The customer approval process need to be there for any new activity or extension of the current activity.
  13. The resources replacement or termination process should be available.
  14. Each resources project activity and training process need to be automated and it should be linked to the activity and also to the performance evaluation tools.
  15. Once the team function starts, their performance management need to be available online.
  16. It can be integrated to the activities tracking system. Against to each activity the mapped resources work need to be reviewed and evaluate by activity wise.
  17. For every quarter the resources need to be evaluated against to the performance by customer and also by the manager. The team manager need to educate the resource to upgrade his/her skills as per the project/customer needs.
  18. Infact, it helps the resource also plan their learning activity in this speedy IT learning culture.
  19. It helps to the vendor and the customer to evaluate the resource stage by stage. And later on CSAT rating will be easy for the managers of customer and teams.
  20. All the above process steps are required to follow just to manage the virtual teams, which is apart from the other operational or enterprise architecture tools integration and their implementation.

I hope with this process/methods no resource will have bad feedback from customer and also from their managers. Their retention policies can be implemented well by the vendor and customer easily. And the resources also feels happy on this healthy work environment/culture.

Please feel free to contact for any consulting support.

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ISTQB ATA exam TIPS-2: on Test Planning activities

In continuation of my ISTQB ATA[Advanced Test Analyst] exam blogs/videos(s):

In this blog, I have made a list of the detailed test planning activities/tasks in the below chart.

I have posted the links for  Audio/Video below this chart.

Tmmi-Test planning-activities

Audio/Video for the above slide:

Audio sharing link:

Video sharing link:

You can download for effective watching.

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ISTQB ATA exam TIPS-1: on Test Monitoring and control sub-topic.

In continuation of my ISTQB ATA[Advanced Test Analyst] exam videos(s).This blog can give some preparation plan for ISTQB on Test Monitoring and control sub-topic

The below slide points gives some tips towards preparing for Test Monitoring and control sub-topic. I also wrote some sample questions and posted on Kindle related to this topic. A book video was made and posted on my Channel.

I have given the  Audio/Video links in the bottom, for the following content elaboration.


Audio/Video for the above slide:

Audio sharing link:

Video sharing link:

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Data migration Projects and the best practices


The data migration is a critical activity for any business. Unless one uses the best practices acceleration it can not be done successfully. 

Also this can help you on how the Agile practices implementation can be useful in several ways in theses projects.

The critical data migration projects can have the below major activities.

During data discovery phase:

  1. Identifying the Business scenario based data.
  2. Identifying the relevant data schemas.
  3. Identifying the tables/queries/SPs, etc. on each of the Data schemas.
  4. Planning for each of the Data schemas extraction, Transformation and loading to target applications.
  5. Verifying the source and target data flows for business operation continuity.

If you are looking for the details, on the request of users an e-book has been published by me under the below title. Click on this link to visit its page:


Cover April 2016


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SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers -5

In continuation of my previous blog  on this subject following questions and answers are continued:

1. What is retrospective in agile and where it can be useful?

Ans: During agile development model in each iteration different requirements are considered to design, develop and construct the code. While performing these tasks there can be different issues identified and resolved by the teams at each stage. The teams need to maintain knowledge information against to each issue as lessons learnt. These issues resolution mechanism processes are going to be considered for any process improvements  for next iteration. During the retrospective [after completing iteration] the team is going to discuss the lessons learnt  from the completed  iteration and the best practices  identified for next iteration. The retrospective is a mandatory activity for every iteration of Agile projects. And this need to be conducted before starting the next iteration.


2.   What is continuous stream of development in agile model?

Ans: As per the agile concept continuous software delivery need to  happen by following iterative development. Let us assume the development team consider the four days for development and fifth day it need to go for release and deployment, fifth day onwards developer considered as other iteration/SPRINT as their continuous development activity. The developers are picking up one  by one SPRINT items for their construction activity this is called as continuous stream of development. When the testing activity is ongoing the developer can pickup other workable items from the SPRINT to do construction activity.


3. What is Continuous Delivery[CD] in Agile ?

Ans: As per the agile concepts and principles, the developer need to get small chunk of workable item only which can be delivered in hours or few days.  When this kind of continuous development is happening through the agile developers there will be builds for continuous testing and deployments. Obviously then the agile project leads to have continuous  delivery [CD] of software into production with small chunks of functionality or fixes.

Example: Many technology companies consider each SPRINT item to complete in hours only to speed up their ongoing software deployments for their daily business needs. This kind of concept is called as Continuous Delivery [CD] in Agile.


4.  What is transition activity and their tasks involved in  agile project?

Ans:  Transition activity is start with deploying software release into production. Once the software construction phase is signed off the transition activity need to be started, typically transition activity contains following tasks.

i) Active stakeholder participation

ii) Final system testing

iii) Final acceptance testing

iv) Finalize documentation

v) Final testing of the release

vi) Train end users

vii) Train production staff

viii) Deploy into production.

All the above tasks are performed in the sequential order.


5.  What is final system testing during transition stage?

Ans: Once software can be deployed  internally, the planned system testing need to be conducted by testing team for a specific iteration. Once system testing is passed or certified the  acceptance testing need to be started.


 6.  When can you conduct final acceptance testing in agile model?

Ans:  In any agile project developers need to conduct a skeleton software demo to the users. Depends on the design requirement once users approved it, the Construction phase need to be  started. Once the software is constructed and  it can be deployed internally for various levels of testing during the transition stage of agile project. At this stage the software release is deployed in test environment. Then the  system testing is conducted and signed off.  The final acceptance testing is conducted on the software to be delivered to the users in production. Once the final acceptance is signed off the remaining tasks are being performed during transition phase, as mentioned in the list of tasks.


7. When can the pilot testing  happen and who all will perform it?

Ans: During the transition stage once the acceptance test is signed off , and final document is done, the software build is executed under a pilot test in a preproduction test or in a production environment depends on the organization policy. The pilot test is attended by the business users and testers or nominated coordinator along with the development team and operations[ops] team.


8.  During the transition stage who all need to be trained?

Ans:  Once the pilot test is done software end users and the production staff (ops team) needs to be trained to operate the product in live [production] for business operations.


9.  When can you deploy the system into production?

Ans: During transition stage once the pilot test is signed off, end users and production staff will be trained on software system and then it is deployed into production.


10. How a  prototype can be designed ?

Ans: When the business user give some requirements which consists of user interface and some data processing to provide output, there are two ways we can design prototype software; a) Prototype model  b) Design and developing the complete software.

a) Prototype model: During prototype model developer design and develop the critical requirements of the users and demonstrate those things as the skeleton software. The skeleton software will not have the complete software operations. It will have an user interface to get an idea by the user on the software to be delivered by the development in future. Once user approved skeleton model, developer can design complete model through Agile SDLC. Note; the prototype model or process can be applied  for one or more SPRINT cycles or iterations.

b) Design and developing the complete software: This kind of software happens in a regular Agile project process from collection of user story onwards. All the agile phases and their tasks will be applied for execution. If the team agreed to a demo [for prototype], the user demos can also happen as and when required for each SPRINT during construction phase.

Keep watching this site for further updates.

Contact for any guidance/coaching.

 Vcard-Shanthi Kumar V


Continuous test automation planning during Agile iterations

Continuous test automation planning during Agile iterations

Please refer to my blog and videos on Agile practices and the importance of Re-usable code libraries for cycle time reduction.

During the reusable code usage and the iterations or sprint planning, the test automation also can be planned, designed and implemented.

This blog eloborates on  the easy processes can be used to implement it and demonstrate the cycle time reduction. Please note atleast after passing the two cycles of tests on the selected manual scripts need to be planned for test automation.

I am trying to elaborate on the process of the Automation of unit testing and component or module integration test automation. Please note the test automation is also a development project. Hence some of the phases are similar to SDLC. The pictorial chart elaborates the detailed steps involved in these test phases automation. Module (Unit) or Component Development in Agile: The below contents and the chart narrates the relationship of automation Development process and the Testing process under each development phase. Development and Testing process Relationship table:

Phase Development Process Test Process
Module (Unit) or component Development Design module from requirements Perform test planning and test environment set up.
  Code module Create test design and develop test data.
  Debug module Write test scripts or record test scenario using module.
  Unit test module Debug automated test script by running against module. Also, tools that support unit testing [Purify, etc] can be used.
  Correct defects Rerun automated test script to regression test as defects are corrected.
  Conduct Performance Testing Verify system is scaleable and will meet the performance requirements. This is the entry criteria for Integration test automation.
Build system by connecting modules.Conduct Integration test with connected modules.Review trouble reports. Combine unit test scripts and add new scripts that demonstrate module inter-connectivity. Use test tool to support automated integration testing.
  Correct defects and update defect status. Rerun automated test script as part of regression test, as defects are corrected.
  Continued Performance Testing Activities At this point, Verifying system is scaleable and will meet performance requirements with the integrated modules. If this passes then the system test or VVT entry can be considered.

Below chart demsontrates the process steps to be used for test automation of unit test and integration testing:


The acronyms used in the chart: TC–>Test case, TD–>Test data, TR–> Test requirement, UT–>Unit test, IT–> Integration test.

All the automated test scripts and test data  need to be preserved under configuration management tools.

Choosing the right tools for test automation comes under tools evaluation process. Once the tools are identified, the above processes can be planned and adopted for regular practice on the Agile projects.



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SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers -3

Agile Cirlce1

In continuation of my previous blog [] on this subject following questions and answers are continued:

1.  During selection of Agile  Projects what are the main activities need to be performed?

Ans: a) Identify potential projects

         b) Prioritize potential projects

         c) Develop initial vision

         d) Consider project feasibility

 2.  How to identify potential projects in an organization?

Ans: In any organization initially, the critical business processes are identified. These critical business process are analyzed for automation through IT  technology. Then they are going to be converted into IT projects. And will be planned as per the Agile methodology for planning, execution and delivery.

3. How the  projects can be prioritized/identified during Agile ?

Ans: Once the critical business processes are identified and planned for IT projects, and these will be the potential projects for prioritization and planning. 

4. What is the initial vision to a project and what should be done at that stage?

Ans: Each prioritized  project should be associated with initial vision of organization. During this stage the ROI [Return On Investment] is calculated for a project. 

5.  What is a project feasibility?

Ans: Once ROI is measured for  a project. The feasibility of doing that project is going to be researched. If it is feasible only the project team is going to consider it as an IT project.

 6.  To initiate the Agile project what are the main activities need to be performed?

Ans: a) Identification of active stakeholders and their participation.

         b) Identification of budgeting and funding to the project. The Required support           need  to be given.         

        c) Building the initial teams.

         d) Envisioning the initial requirement with agile concept by following iterative development plans.

         e) Identifying initial architecture and design.

         f) Identifying required development, testing environments and setting up these environments.

      7. What is the process involved in initial requirement envisioning

             Ans:  In a prioritized project the customer requirements are gathered and these requirements are prioritized by user group. The project team is going to segregate them into different iterations of a software delivery. Each iteration is going to be considered in  one software delivery.

8. What are the steps involved during  initial architecture?

Ans: During initiation of project,  the project team need to identify the required technical teams for  different iterations of delivery. The skeleton architecture need to be enhanced to baseline it with reference to the identified iterations of entire software project delivery. Then the technical teams need to understand their delivery responsibility in view of different software components.

9.  During the initiation of the project what are the steps involved in setting up  the environments ?

Ans:  i) During the environmental  setup activity as per the agile development process we need to have the following environments by minimum.

a) Development environment

b) Testing environment

c) Production environment.

          ii) The above environments needs to be satisfied as per the initial architectural requirement.

iii) If modification is required it needs to be documented for specific iteration.

10. During construction phase what is the meaning or importance for active stakeholder participation?

Ans:  In agile development by following different process steps it facilitates for a sustainable development environment. During this stage the stakeholders are called [for example ] as; sponsors, developers, users, etc. These stakeholders can vary from one project to another project, when it is going to be defined for a project selection. The stakeholders involvement is mandatory during construction phase to review and decide on  further movement  of construction phase tasks. At this stage they might ask for some more changes also. The developers should be in a position to accept them as per the Agile manifesto rules. The Product Owner [PO] can decide on the size of the SPRINT [iteration] delivery. Hence during construction stage the stakeholder participation is mandatory to finalize the final SPRINT delivery. If it is a maintenance or bug fixes project sometimes the stakeholders may not be required, the PO only can decide the final SPRINT.

Keep watching this site for further updates.

Contact for any guidance/coaching.

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For next blog, visit:

Management practice-3:How to plan and initiate your cloud transformation?


Current IT setup before cloud


Cloud evaluation-chartInitiate-Page3


On the above content I have made a video and posted  on my youtube  channel [Shanthi Kumar V] video URL:

By seeing big cloud services vendors you and your team do not need to get confusion and get into their attraction shoes. Each vendor offer the services and their products differently. If you consider the above steps many of the issues or risks can be minimized and you will have your route map for cloud transformation along with the selection steps.

Currently; many testing or DevOps teams setup their test environments by using their existing hardware and using Virtual Machines [VMs] concepts. After certification of the product those VMs can be destroyed also.

Similarly; by having your internal cloud machines [VMs] you can automate the deployment process also by adopting into DevOps culture. Where many global organizations have achieved this activity under their regular management practices.

If you would like to know the basic cloud concepts and models please visit my cloud blogs site:

am open to offer a 2 hours online workshop [globally] to motivate your teams on the above steps, if they are on the similar activities. Please feel free to be in touch with me.

Please contact for any of the below services:Vcard-Shanthi Kumar V


SDLC & Agile – Interview questions for Freshers -4

Agile Cirlce1

In continuation of my previous blog []

on this subject following questions and answers are continued:


1.  What is a collaborative development approach in  agile development model ?

Ans: In any agile project as per the Agile manifesto principles the team need to pull up the ideas through a prototype like;  either phased prototype or iterative prototype or rapid prototype. With these pulled ideas, the team need to work together by sharing knowledge among themselves and which is considered as a collaborative development approach. 

2.  What is model storming during construction phase of an agile development model?

Ans: When the initial requirements are envisioned they all are being transmitted into different iterations. A single team or multiple teams need to execute the iteration during software code construction. The requirements also can be changed or newly added by the stakeholders as per the agile principles at any stage of Agile project phases.  The team need to be brain stormed to execute the iterations correctly and completely as per the user’s desire. The iteration can be considered as a single agile model for construction phase and this model storming can happen within team for clear understanding of SPRINT by each developer. During the model storming; the requirements decomposition happens like; from user story to design specifications those can lead to SPRINT items, and from design to code specifications. Depends on the team planning; sometimes the outcome of model storming can also be a TDD [Test Driven Design]. [Please look into my youtube videos on Agile topic reusable code example]


3. What is Test Driven Design [TDD]?

Ans: Any requirement [story] need to be decomposed into design requirement. Each design requirement need to be converted into code through construction phase. When the code is visualized [before development] by the developer a test driven scenario need to be identified or visualized by the developer and it need to be documented into a test case with different test design steps. Once the developer feels this test case can be executed by using different code paths the developer can start the code writing, this concept is called Test Driven Design and using this TDD specification the development can be started.  Hence the Agile developers need to make TDD  1st ready and plan for code writing, review and unit testing. Sometimes the TDD  can be the outcome of the model storming also.

4. What is confirmatory testing?

Ans: In any software build there can be defects through different levels of testing. When the developer fixes one or more defects and deploy code in test environment, the test engineer need to retest it for confirming the software function with reference to the regression requirements or functionality and the fixes [if any]. For every fix confirmation test is mandatory.

 5.  What is evolving documentation?

Ans: As per the agile process when the code is constructed and tested the prepared documents need to be updated with reference to the tested and certified build. If any new requirement has to be incorporated into document, the documentation evolving is an ongoing activity for an iteration build till it goes to production.


6.  What is internally deploying software?

Ans: Once the construction is over for an iteration requirement, software can be unit tested and integration tested. If it is passed, it can be move to other test environments. As per the deployment process when we are moving software into the different environments [after test certification or confirmation] the build is known as internally deployable software.


7.  When can you finalize the documentation in agile model?

Ans: During the transition stage once the acceptance test is signed off users suggestions are considered to finalize the documentation.


8.  What are  tangible and intangible benefits for users?

Ans: In any business requirements there are direct benefits from business to incorporate software requirements into software system which is considered as tangible [direct] benefits. There are intangible [indirect benefits] also  by incorporating different requirements into software with a business usage.

Example: If  the system performance is increased by a technical design  in the software architecture, users can access the data faster which is intangible benefits. Then the  iteration can facilitate to perform the software with faster data access or the web pages appearance can be faster. Sometimes this kind of requirements can come into  technical areas rather than coming through a user story in Agile and those can be intangible benefit. Even we might consider an upgrade to database or OS or memory, etc.  then also the data access speed can be increased.


9.  What is the feedback analysis? When it can be done?

Ans: As per the agile principles the stakeholder collaboration is an ongoing activity. At any time the stakeholder can give informal or formal feedback for any software items or in any approach followed by agile teams. In agile model many times informal feedback can happen during the discussion. At the same time the scheduled reviews also can happen. During the review the feedback can be given by the reviewers. Even a test result can come into a feedback category. All these feedback items need to be analyzed for delivering a working software by the teams as per the principles.  Sometimes the feedback analysis outcome can come into process improvements areas for the next iteration and these should be considered for Retrospective items. Hence the feedback analysis is a mandated activity at every task completion stage in  Agile project.


10.  What is demo in agile model?

Ans: With reference to the rapid prototype approach agile teams are supposed to demonstrate skeleton design for a new module. it is a plan to demonstrate skeleton system to the stakeholder and to get the feedback for processing further SPRINT  or Iteration items. This demo is organized depends on the software or initial plan for a given iteration.

Keep watching this site for further updates.

Contact for any guidance/coaching.


Vcard-Shanthi Kumar V